Chemistry

Scientific Essay Link

Disappearing Ink Lab:

For the this lab we made disappearing ink, but not like the ink you can get as toys or little prizes, this ink would really work because of the reactive chemicals in the ink. The ink disappears because of carbon in the air is touching it. Carbon dioxide is in the air which reacts with the water in the solution to form carbonic acid. The carbonic acid then reacts with the sodium hydroxide in a neutralization reaction to form sodium carbonate. This lowers the pH of the solution with the alcohol acting as an acid to turn the indicator colorless and the ink stain magically disappears.Don’t put this ink on people because it can burn holes through skin and clothes, only put it on paper.

Step one was to measure .1g of phenolphthalein into a 125mL erlenmeyer flask.

  • Phenolphthalein is a colorless crystalline solid (pink in alkaline solution) used as an acid–base indicator.
  • An erlenmeyer flask is flat-bottomed glass flask with a narrow neck.
  • Before putting phenolphthalein into the flask be sure to rinse the flask out with distilled water to make sure there is nothing contaminating the ink.

Step two is to add 10 mL of ethanol and stir until it is dissolved.

  • Ethanol is a lab alcohol (it can make you sick if you drink it though).

Step three is to add 100 mL of DI H20

  • DI is Distilled
  • H20 is water

Step four is to add drop wise 3m NaOH until dark red.

  • 3m means 3 molarity and molarity is a measure of concentration.
  • NaOH is Sodium Hydroxide which can melt your clothes and skin if you get a lot on you.
  • When making this dark red it took about 7 drops.

 

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Ocean Acidification:

Ocean Acidification is when Carbon in the atmosphere goes into the ocean and causes the ocean to be more acidic, which affects ocean life.

Questions and Answers the class had:

 

  • Did people cause ocean acidification?

 

Yes, excess human-produced CO2 by the oceans causes arise in seawater acidity. Human sources of Carbon Dioxide come from cement production, deforestation, and the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas.

 

  • Why does carbon make the ocean acidic?

 

As the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rises, the oceans absorbs a lot of it. Carbon dioxide reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid. This causes the acidity of seawater to grow.

 

  • How do u measure Acidity?

 

pH is the measure of acidity/basicity. On the pH scale zero is the most acidic, seven is neutral, and 14 is the most basic. The lower the number on the scale, the higher acidic it is.

Ocean acidification happens when there is a decrease in the pH of the ocean, because of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Seawater is slightly basic (meaning pH > 7), and ocean acidification goes towards pH-neutral conditions rather than a transition to acidic conditions (pH < 7).

 

  • Is this affecting ocean life and What type of Ocean life is it affecting?   

 

  Ocean Acidification is affecting sea life at the base of the food chain for example, coral, clams, mussels, sea urchins, barnacles, and certain microscopic plankton

Ocean acidification is the process of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air being absorbed by the oceans and causing significant changes in seawater chemistry.

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States of Matter 2: The Earth

The Earth has 4 layers: the Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, and the Crust. We live on the crust of the earth. The Inner Core is made up of solid iron and nickel. The Outer core is made of iron and nickel also but in liquid form, and the Mantle is a thick liquid that is made of semi-molten rock called magma and its about 97% silicates (SiO3). Lastly, the Crust is solidified Mantle and the Biosphere. We live on the Crust, which is good because the Mantle is so hot that we would all burn up. Above and around is is the earth’s magnetic field that bounces around our earth which keeps everything in place.

In our lab we made rocks out of silicates, distilled water, and chemicals. When they were put together the crystals (rocks) grew, the grew up in the beaker which made it look like the shape of a tree. When the liquid was poured out it looked really pretty, it was so sharp (like little pieces of glass) that we couldn’t touch it though.

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Properties Of Matter:

Buoyancy

  • The tenancy of one thing to float in another
  • Balsa wood floats in water because it is less dense than water

Density

  • The degree of compactness of a substance
  • Less dense things float in more dense things
  • In balloons: more density more lift
  • D=m/v

Pressure-

  • The continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.
  • Gas molecules hit you from all directions and in return you feel pressure (they bounce off everything).
  • Increase pressure when you increase the heat (they move faster).
  • Decrease pressure if you make it colder (they move slower).

Floating Candle Lab Explanation:

For this lab we made floating candles/lanterns out of birthday candles, balsa wood, plastic bags, and tape. We used two pieces of thin balsa wood to be the base and hold the candles, the candles were cut in half and placed near the middle area of the wood. We then taped the four opening flaps of the plastic bag to the four pieces of the balsa wood and that finished the building process of the lantern. Once we were ready, the candle were lit and we held the top of the lantern up to get it floating. It float for a few minutes before the candles burned down and we had to blow them out. Overall I thought it was a really cool lab and it was pretty also.

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Phases of matter/ Weather Lab

The phases of matter are Solids, Liquids, and Gasses, pressure and temperature determine what phase of matter something is in. Hot things usually have high pressure and cold usually have low pressure. You can tell what the phase of something is using the Phase Change Diagram, which determines the phase of something based on its pressure and temperature. Every substance has its own Phase Change Diagram.

Solids are atoms that are squished together and they don’t move, when there is a big amount of pressure and low temperature and object becomes a solid.

Liquids are atoms that move a little bit but not that much. When there is a big amount of pressure and temperature an object becomes a liquid.

Gases are when the atoms move freely and bounce off of each other, gasses are the outcome of low pressure and high temperature.

The change of phases each have their own name:

Gas → Solid = Deposition

Solid → Gas = Sublimation

Liquid → Solid = Freezing

Solid → Liquid = Melting

Gas → Liquid = Condensation

Liquid → Gas = Vaporization

Fun Fact: Frozen water is hale and crystallized water is snow

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“Light” Lab:

Light Hypothesis

These pictures show what we did in the lab.

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Chemistry Questions Updated:

Question #1 – How would you describe what science is?

Science is a very big word. Not in the way of work length but all the meanings behind the word. There are so many types of sciences, science about earth, space, chemicals (man and earth made), physical things, human science, and more. Science can be as simple as the process of how a flower grows but it also may be as complex as traveling to the moon to see what very few people have seen before. Science is never ending, there will always be another thing for us to discover, I think that is the overall best part about science.Science is not just finding and understanding the unknown but but questioning it and finding a way to prove or disprove that theory. It is not believing what you see without proof because everything is a theory or idea until proven otherwise.

Question #2 – What is a Hypothesis, and why would you make one?

A hypothesis is a well thought out idea that will eventually lead to more research about that idea. Hypotheses are made because people are curious about things. The first step into finding unknown things out is to make an educated hypothesis.

Combustion and Hydrogen Lab:

When we burned our balloon it popped and made a mini explosion from the oxygen with the heat of the flame and the hydrogen. I think the actual pop sound was from the balloon popping and the fire was from the flame hitting the hydrogen near it. If you look at what happened on an atomic level the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen (from the fire) combined and it resulted in the mini explosion. The oxygen atom has 6 electrons on its outer shell and hydrogen has 1 electron on its shell. To be reactive an atom has to have 8 electrons on its outer shell, so in order for this reaction to happen the oxygen atom combined with 2 hydrogen atoms. When this happened the explosion was the result.

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Combustion Reading :

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Chemistry Questions:

Question #1 – How would you describe what science is?

Science is a very big word. Not in the way of work length but all the meanings behind the word. There are so many types of sciences, science about earth, space, chemicals (man and earth made), physical things, human science, and more. I think that science can simply be  described as the finding and understanding of the unknown. It can be as simple as the process of how a flower grows but it also may be as complex as travelling to the moon to see what very few people have seen before. Science is never ending, there will always be another thing for us to discover, I think that is the overall best part about science

Question #2 – What is a Hypothesis, and why would you make one?

A hypothesis is a well thought out idea that will eventually lead to more research about that idea. Hypotheses are made because people are curious about things. The first step into finding unknown things out is to make an educated hypothesis.